International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations
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Benzene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Supplement7, 1987)
Benzene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 29, 1982)
Summary: Numerous case reports and series have suggested a relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurrence of various types of leukaemia [ref: 1]. Several case-control studies have also shown increased odds ratios for exposure to benzene, but mixed exposure patterns and poorly defined exposures render their interpretation difficult [ref: 1,2]. Three independent cohort studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia in workers exposed to benzene [ref: 1,3]...
Benzene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 7, 1974)
Summary: Benzene has been tested in rats by intragastric administration and inhalation exposure, and in mice by skin application, inhalation exposure and subcutaneous injection. Major contributors to benzene emissions into air include: (1) gasoline production, storage, transport, vending and combustion; (2) production of other chemicals from benzene; and (3) indirect production of benzene (e.g., in coke ovens). There is a clear correlation between exposure to benzene and the appearance of chromosomal ...
1,4-Bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 71, 1999)
Summary: Benzene has been tested only in mice by subcutaneous injection and skin application. It is established that exposure to commercial benzene or benzene-containing mixtures may result in damage to the haematopoietic system. A relationship between such exposure and the development of leukaemia is suggested by many case reports, and this suggestion is strengthened by a case-control study from Japan.
Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 36, 1985)
Summary: No epidemiological data relevant to the carcinogenicity of 1,4-bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene were available. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of 1,4-bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene. 1,4-Bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
Chlorinated Toluenes and Benzoyl Chloride (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 71, 1999)
Summary: Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (of technical grade) was tested for carcinogenicity by intragastric intubation in mice of one strain and in rats of one strain. Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (of technical grade) was mutagenic to bacteria. No data on the carcinogenicity of diglycidyl resorcinol ether to humans were available to the Working Group.
1,4-Bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 15, 1977)
Summary: Benzyl chloride, benzal chloride, benzotrichloride and benzoyl chloride have been studied by skin application to mice. Small numbers of skin tumours were produced by benzyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, while clear increases in skin tumours were produced by benzal chloride and benzotrichloride. Benzyl chloride, benzal chloride and benzotrichloride, but not benzoyl chloride, are bacterial mutagens.
Diglydicyl Resorcinol Ether (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 71, 1999)
Summary: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Summaries & Evaluations 1,4-Bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene is carcinogenic in mice, the only species tested, following its application to the skin or its subcutaneous administration; it produced malignant tumours at the sites of application. No case reports or epidemiological studies were available to the Working Group.
Fluoranthene (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 32, 1983)
Summary: No epidemiological data relevant to the carcinogenicity of diglycidyl resorcinol ether were available. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of a technical grade of diglycidyl resorcinol ether in experimental animals. Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (technical grade) is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
Boot and Shoe Manufacture and Repair (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 25, 1981)
Summary: Fluoranthene was tested for carcinogenicity by skin application in mice in two studies, and no tumorigenic effect was observed. When fluoranthene was administered to mice by skin application together with benzo[a]pyrene, an excess of skin tumours was produced over that induced by the same dose of benzo[a]pyrene alone. The available data provide no evidence that fluoranthene per se is carcinogenic to experimental animals.
Summary: In a third study, with equal numbers of cases and controls, there were seven shoe repairers and one shoemaker among the cases, and one shoe repairer and two shoemakers among the controls. In a large, multi-tumour-site case-control study in New York State, the relative risk for shoemakers/shoe repairers was 3.6 (p < 0.05, based on 8 cases). Hypothesis-generating surveys have suggested associations between boot and shoe manufacture/repair and cancer of the lung, oral cavity and pharynx and ...
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